Annotation:Computer networks are an important part of modern civilization. They are used literally in all spheres of human activity. Significant losses due to failures of these networks cause high requirements for the stability of their operation. Ensuring the necessary resilience, in particular, relies on the protection of computer networks from virus attacks. In its interests, appropriate protection systems are being created. As an indicator of the effectiveness of such systems, it is proposed to use the number of network computers that a virus manages to infect before it is detected and removed. The empirical basis for assessing the effectiveness of systems for protecting computer networks from virus attacks is the data obtained as a result of field tests and (or) previous operating experience. These data are random in nature, and their volume, as a rule, is significantly limited. An approach to assessing the effectiveness of systems for protecting computer networks from virus attacks, taking into account the indicated features of empirical data, is considered in this article. The approach is based on the presentation of empirical data in the form of a small sample from the general population of values of a random variable of the number of computers on the network that the virus managed to infect before it was detected and removed. The distribution function of this quantity is taken as a test model. The construction of the distribution function is based on the principle of maximum uncertainty. Shannon's entropy is taken as a measure of uncertainty.
Keywords:computer network, virus attack, network protection system, protection efficiency
Annotation:If the data is not available to the outside world, it is useless. The data must be available so that the necessary processing and planning can be carried out. Regulating and monitoring user access to a database is one of the important tasks of the database security community. Database protection against inference attacks is a part of information security that tries to prevent the disclosure of sensitive information through available information (tables, individual records). It is necessary to have methods capable of maintaining a balance between the use of information and the protection of data. The purpose of this work is to compare different inference control methods in order to evaluate the methods results to minimize both the loss of information and the risk of information disclosure.
Keywords:Information Security, Security Monitoring, Security Control, Data Structuring, Data Engineering
Annotation:The article discusses the possibility of using the Mitre AT&T knowledge base in the development of systems for detecting computer attacks involving malware. Using the Mitre API, a statistical analysis of malware is carried out, as well as techniques and tactics used by hacker groups to compile additional indicators of compromised attacks.
Keywords:computer security, Mitre, APT, malware, executable file, statistical analysis
Annotation:This paper discusses the main methods of immunization of modern computer networks. The greatest attention is paid to topologies and types of graph structures under consideration. An assessment and comparison of existing immunization strategies and methods for solving the problems of optimal selection of nodes for immunization in the context of the considered topologies is also carried out. The main advantages, disadvantages and areas of application of the selected topologies and methods for solving immunization problems are highlighted.
Keywords:computer networks, immunization, cyber-physical systems, network security, scale-free networks
Annotation:It is shown that data protection technologies used in wired communication networks are not available for low-power devices of the Internet of things. Therefore, the search for an attack on IoT devices can be implemented by means of analyzing the traffic that carries the attack and, as a result, is classified as anomalous. A technique for searching for an anomaly in the network traffic of the Internet of things is proposed. A sequence of steps is considered to isolate a random component from the traffic generated by the IoT sensor devices, remaining after the exclusion of the main characteristics and which may contain an anomaly. The software implementation of the proposed technique can become part of the intrusion detection system for the Internet of things.
Keywords:Internet of things, anomalous traffic, data security, traffic analysis technique, intrusion detection system
Annotation:The actual problem of optimization of information integrity control in data storage systems functioning in conditions of continuous growth of its volumes and destructive influences of an attacker is considered. A method of cryptographic integrity control of multidimensional data arrays based on the rules for constructing Reed-Solomon codes is presented.
Keywords:information protection, data integrity control, cryptographic methods, Reed-Solomon code
Annotation:The paper presents a compact method of detecting LSB inserts in color photographic images that proves high efficiency when dealing with low stego-payload images. The method is based on an analysis of signatures of pairwise similarity the zero and first layers, an algorithm for largest empty rectangles, white (black) pixel dominance pattern and image moments analysis.
Keywords:Steganalysis, steganographic analysis, stegocontainer analysis, LSB-insert detection
Annotation:The appearance of Meltdown/Spectre attacks exploiting the vulnerabilities in Intel processors via misuse of speculative executions has destroyed confidence in the security of user’s confidential data which includes cryptoservices secret parameters. The developed Meltdown/Spectre countermeasures demonstrated ineffectiveness in neutralizing the newly designed speculative execution attacks. Paper highlights a fundamental solution of specified issue via Intel ME technology usage. The dedicated Intel ME processor is immune to Meltdown/Spectre attacks, which makes it effective to be used as a cryptoprocessor. Implementation of the proposed approach can be achieved through the usage of Intel Dynamic Application Loader (Intel DAL) technology.
Keywords:side-channel attacks, speculative execution, Meltdown, Spectre, Intel ME, Intel DAL, cryptoservice
Annotation:New complex tasks related to information security when scaling data storage systems are considered. A method of cryptographic integrity control of large data arrays based on geometric fractals is presented.
Keywords:data storage system, information protection, data integrity control, hash function, Sierpinski triangle
Annotation:This article presents research aimed at analyzing methods for generating synthetic data to populate honeypot systems. To select the generated data types, the relevant target objects in the context of honeypot-systems are identified. Existing generation methods are investigated. Methods for evaluating the quality of generated data in the context of honeypot systems are also analyzed. As a result, a layout of an automated system for generating synthetic data for honeypot-systems is developed and its performance is evaluated.
Keywords:honeypot system, deep learning methods, synthetic data generation, machine learning, inference attacks
Annotation:A new approach is considered related to the construction of mathematical models of quality indicators for further evaluation of the process of functioning of the information security system, taking into account the requirements for the results of the operation. The vector of quality indicators of the results of the process of functioning of the system. Under consideration is substantiated, models of the virtual indicator and the required quality of the results of the process of functioning of the information security system are presented.
Keywords:mathematical model, quality indicator, destructive impact scenario, unified information space, information security system
Annotation:The article is devoted to the development of a model and algorithm for solving the problem of ensuring information security in promising domestic computer-aided design systems based on a modified method of branches and boundaries using the duality of solutions to linear programming problems. As a result, an algorithm was obtained that allows the developer to ensure the information security of shipbuilding projects at a sufficient level.
Keywords:information security, ship design, mathematical model
Annotation:The complexity of neutralization and the lack of a universal mitigation approach of speculative execution attacks allows potential malware to have an unauthorized access to data being processed by CPU. To provide the confidentiality of such data it`s processing should be transferred from CPU to a microprocessor operating in a trusted execution environment. Paper describes the approach of using Intel DAL technology, which allows to implement application in Intel ME subsystem, thus completely mitigate side channel speculative execution attacks.
Keywords:side-channel attacks, speculative execution, Meltdown, Spectre, Intel TEE, Intel ME, Intel DAL, cryptoservices
Annotation:The problem of information security in modern conditions of application and functioning of information systems, complicated by the continuous growth of the volume and value of processed information, is considered in the article. A method for ensuring data integrity based on numerical-theoretic Gauss transformations is presented.
Keywords:information system, information protection, control and restoration of data integrity, complex numbers
Annotation:The article proposes an algorithm for embedding a digital watermark into the executable code of the program. Dynamic memory of the program is used as a stegocontainer. The digital watermark is formed in the memory of the executable program under certain conditions. The embedding parameters are determined by the executable code and the run time of the program. The digital watermark is checked by a separate application using key information.
Keywords:digital watermark, steganography, dynamic memory, authentication
Annotation:Nowadays, the development of smart city concepts and cyber-physical systems is impossible without considering information security issues. In the conditions of limited computational resources, it is necessary to find a trade-off between the cryptographic strength of the encryption algorithm and its requirements. As part of the study, lightweight modifications of the AES symmetric block cipher are compared to identify the most balanced solution for ensuring the confidentiality of low-power devices communication. The comparison is made both in terms of theoretical indicators that determine cryptographic strength, and in terms of encryption and decryption time, depending on the size of the input data. The obtained results demonstrate that the Modified AES is the most balanced solution in relation to the specified requirements. It outperforms not only other modifications, but also the standard algorithm, improving the diffusion and confusion values by 5% and 30% respectively, and also reducing the average encryption/decryption time by one and a half times.
Keywords:AES, lightweight modifications, resource-constrained environment, cryptographic protection, smart city
Annotation:This paper presents an adaptive control system for detecting computer attacks in critical information infrastructure based on a neuro-fuzzy analysis of variant cyber-threat spaces and parameters of the protected object using the automatically reconfigurable ANFIS neuro-fuzzy inference system and Takagi-Sugeno-Kanga fuzzy basis. The results of experimental studies have shown that the developed system provides high accuracy and speed of detecting computer attacks in changing decision-making conditions.
Keywords:Adaptive Control, Critical Information Infrastructure, Neuro-Fuzzy System, Computer Attack Detection
Annotation:This paper discusses new approaches to building models of immunization of modern computer networks. The greatest attention is paid to the consideration of the P2P static model, segment model, as well as models of dynamic representation of cyclic and growing graphs. The main advantages and areas of application of the considered models, the nuances of their use and the novelty of the considered methods are highlighted.
Keywords:Computer Networks, Immunization, Scale-Free Networks, P2P, Segment Model, Cyberphysical Systems
Annotation:This paper presents a mathematical model for the spread of computer attacks on critical information infrastructure based on the extension of the basic Lotka-Volterra model. Within the framework of the proposed model, the problem to be solved is formulated, the point of stability of the system is determined, and a criterion is proposed for the adequacy of the applied methods for detecting attacks to changing parameters of the critical information infrastructure and existing cyber threats.
Keywords:Critical Information Infrastructure, Adequacy Criterion, Mathematical Model, Lotka-Volterra Model, Computer Attack Spread Rate, Stability Point, CII
Annotation:A method for identifying signals based on the results of electrocardiogram (ECG) processing performed based on wavelet technologies is considered. The use of digital technologies for processing and diagnostics of ECG signals using wavelet analysis can significantly improve the efficiency and quality of evaluation of pacemaker settings during implantation, as well as in the process of correction of functional modes, diagnostics, in order to eliminate postoperative complications, etc. Digital processing of complex cardiac signals at a qualitatively new level is an indispensable condition for radically improving the processing of the current values of the diagnosed parameters, the widespread use of digital tools for making informed and effective decisions in the field of medical care, as well as for information support of identification processes. A method of approximation is considered and an algorithm for analyzing ECG diagrams obtained during implantation and in the process of choosing the modes of functioning of pacemakers based on the wavelet, transform is given. The presence of high–frequency components and short-term pulses in the spectrum of ECG signals, the evaluation of which is practically impossible by the traditionally used methods of spectral analysis, determined the choice of a method for digitalizing the decomposition of signals into basic frequency rhythms for parametric evaluation of QRS complexes. The approximation method is based on the use of wavelet analysis, which allows deep investigation of such modes. Examples of the use of wavelet analysis for the approximation of ECG diagrams using cubic splines whose interpolation nodes are located on an uneven grid are given. Digital technologies are implemented using the tools of the MATLAB computing environment.
Keywords:electrocardiogram, parametric estimation, identification, wavelet technologies, Dobshy wavelets, cubic spline, signal reconstruction levels, wavelet decomposition coefficients
Annotation:The possibility of using of Identity and access Management system (IdM/IAM) is considered in the paper to automate users account and access rights management in Industrial Control System (ICS). The main feature of IdM/IAM system is that they require an individual approach and ongoing support when implemented in ICS. The results of the role-based access model development are presented for its implementation in IdM/IAM. An analysis of ICS safety has been carried out and the article provides a list of the information assets and information subjects representing the function, or roles, of industrial network users. A hierarchy of users roles and an access matrix (with possible rights) have been developed.
Keywords:Industrial control system, information assets, information subjects, access control, user account and rights management, hierarchy of users roles
Annotation:The article describes a method associated with the construction of mathematical models of quality indicators for further evaluation of the process of functioning of an automated system for special purposes, taking into account destructive influences. Methods for calculating the performance indicators of complex systems are presented. The features of the construction of analytical and simulation models are disclosed. Algorithms for modeling of the designed automated systems of special purpose are constructed.
Keywords:Mathematical Model, Quality Indicator, Method, Algorithm, Destructive Impact, Automated System of Special Purpose
Annotation:Improving the qualitative indicators of identifying the state of information security of individual cyber-physical systems segments is associated with the processing of large information arrays. A method of splitting data samples is proposed to improve the quality of algorithms for classifying information security states. Classification models are configured on training sets of examples in which outliers, noisy data, and an imbalance of observed objects may be present, which affects the qualitative indicators of the results. At certain points in time, under the influence of the external environment, the frequency of occurrence of observed events, the ranges of recorded values may change, which significantly affects the quality indicators. It is shown that a number of events in the samples occur as a result of the actions of internal and external factors.
Keywords:information security, machine learning, dataset, influencing factors, the formation of data samples
Annotation:The paper proposes the use of recurrent neural networks with the LSTM architecture for solving problems related to the detection of anomalous instances in data sets and compares the effectiveness of the proposed method with the traditional technique – the support vector machine for one class. During the study, an experiment was conducted and criteria for the effectiveness of implementations were formulated. The results obtained in this way made it possible to draw appropriate conclusions about the applicability of recurrent neural networks in the tasks of detecting anomalous instances and put forward proposals for the further development of this direction.
Keywords:anomaly detection, machine learning, support vector method, recurrent neural networks, LSTM, learning without a teacher, recurrent neural networks
Annotation:This paper is about the adversarial attacks on machine learning systems that analyze medical images. The authors review the existing attacks, conducts their systematization and practical feasibility. The article contains an analysis of existing methods of protection against adversarial attacks on machine learning systems. It describes the peculiarities of medical images. The authors solve the problem of protection against adversarial attacks for these images based on several defensive methods. The authors have determined the most relevant protection methods, their implementation and testing on practical examples – the analysis of COVID-19 patient’s images.
Keywords:attacks on machine learning systems, machine learning system protection, adversarial attacks, medical images, machine learning
Annotation:The research addresses four strategies of information security: the strategy game of chicken, balance of business incentives and desire to “balance on the brink” (brinkmanship), formation of sufficient security with minimal effort for customers and consumers, worsening, and in some cases improving security of its infrastructure and the Security Maturity Model (IoT SMM) is demonstrated. The benefits of the latter strategy are assessed through choosing an architecture with the core of the IoT security maturity model as a hierarchy of security practices. Algorithms for ensuring cyber security and protection against threats are analysed. We propose a method for analysis and selection of the best architecture for multicore hierarchical clustering of computing systems and implement an expert system based on chip MCNPAoC SBIS 1879ВМ8Y chip module MC 127.05, complete with a user interface.
Keywords:defense strategies, the game of chicken, balance of business incentives, infrastructure security, Security Maturity Model, architecture, multicore, hierarchical clustering, expert system, user interface
Annotation:Information and analytical systems are considered, the functioning of which is based on the processing of multidimensional arrays of information in the conditions of destructive effects of an attacker and environmental disturbances. A subsystem of data integrity control is proposed, based on the use of redundant coding, in which the data to be protected is presented in the form of blocks, pre-grouped according to the criterion of "information value" to ensure the correctness of the user's decision-making of an information and analytical system.
Keywords:information protection, data integrity control, codes with unequal character protection
Annotation:A comparative analysis of computer network clustering methods is presented. The purpose of this study is to systematize, summarize, analyze and supplement the existing experience in describing and solving the problems of information security of cyber-physical systems; to make a general information basis for testing the considered methods on their own datasets and the subsequent implementation of their own approach to computer network clustering in cybersecurity tasks.
Keywords:clustering, information security models, cyber-physical systems
Annotation:The article contains the description of research undertaken to assess the block symmetric cipher Kuznyechic cryptographic stability in case of impossible differentials method attacks. The way to assess the simplified versions of Kuznyechic cryptographic stability in case of impossible differentials method attacks was used to get the results. The results obtained were generalized for the full version of the cipher Kuznyechic.
Keywords:cipher Kuznyechik, cryptographic stability, impossible differentials, crypto-analysis, GOST R 34.12-2018
Annotation:This paper focuses on the investigation and systematization of cyber threats to large-scale cyber-physical systems with dynamic network infrastructures. The proposed taxonomy provides a unified view of the specifics of such systems in terms of security, attacker targets, and TCP/IP network stack levels. Taken together, the systematization developed provides the basis for a new technology to protect complex dynamic systems by providing knowledge of which networking parameters need to be controlled to counteract certain classes of cyberthreats.
Keywords:ad hoc networks, MANET, wireless sensor networks, cyber threat, TCP/IP stack
Annotation:The paper is devoted to developing a model capable of describing the process of functioning of large-scale systems with dynamic, adaptive network topology. The mathematical apparatus on which the model is based is dynamic graph theory, due to which the functioning of an ad hoc network is represented as a set of static graphs, each of which corresponds to a certain timestamp. Dynamic graphs allow changes in the network to be tracked and marked as legitimate or illegitimate. The key parameters of the developed model were chosen based on the practical experience of researchers involved in the detection of various attacks in ad hoc networks, which makes the proposed model a priori oriented for subsequent security analysis.
Keywords:ad hoc networks, wireless sensor networks, dynamic graph theory, centrality metrics, critical nodes
Annotation:The paper proposes an approach to estimating the security of cyber-physical systems based on the modeling graph structural characteristics. As structural characteristics of the graph, indicators based on the spectrum of the graph were studied. To test the hypothesis about the negative impact of attacking influences on the structure of the graph, experiments were carried out, consisting in the sequential removal of vertices and edges from the graph with "small world" property. This type of graph was chosen because researches show that the “small world” property is inherent in high voltage smart grids. The conducted experiments showed that the attacking influences on the system, displayed on the graph, negatively affect the structure of the network, and therefore lead to inefficient information exchange and, consequently, the functioning of the system.
Keywords:cyberphysical systems, smart grid, graph theory, graph entropy, spectral graph theory, «small-world» graph
Annotation:This article discusses the limitations of the combined use of information protection hardware and virtualization technologies due to the presence of microarchitectural vulnerabilities in processors. A conclusion is made about the possibility and boundary conditions for the safe use of untrusted software in automated systems, where information is protected from unauthorized access through the joint use of hardware information security modules and a trusted hypervisor.
Keywords:automated systems, virtualization technologies, processor microarchitectural vulnerabilities
Annotation:This article considers cases of implementation blockchain technology in Russian Federation. Description of Russian software products in the field of distributed registries and their usage by Russian business representatives is given. Also, this paper described features of Ethereum and Hyperledger blockchain separately and within development of platforms Masterchain and Waves Enterprise. The technologies given in the article are related (in particular) to private blockchains. A review of the integration of these technologies in the following companies was carried out: Gazprom, Nornickel, Rosseti, Sberbank, Alfa-Bank, S7 Airlines and OR Group. Their examples describe the stages of introducing blockchain technology into production processes, approaches used for implementation and future development prospects. In the end were drawn conclusions about the relevance of the technology, areas of its usage and the necessity to comply with the requirements of fault tolerance and information security.
Keywords:Blockchain, Cryptography, Hash Function, Private Blockchain, Masterchain, Waves Enterprise, Hyperledger
Annotation:The article is devoted to the concept of a virtual squad of unmanned aerial vehicles. This concept allows us to solve the problem of differentiation of access rights to information system resources.
Keywords:unmanned aerial vehicles, virtual squad, differentiation of access rights, model of neural network interaction
Annotation:Digitalization of technological processes on ships using the tools of modern computing systems allows solving important technical problems at a qualitatively new level, improving information support and monitoring of the technical condition of ships and ship technical systems based on dynamic observers and evaluators. A method for synthesizing observers for a ship's course control system based on the theory of modal regulators is considered. The models for assessing the operational performance of ship control systems are based on the application of a generalized mathematical model, which can take various forms depending on the influence of numerous factors on its structure and parameters.
Keywords:vessel, control, modal controller, observer, exit and state vectors, algorithm, generalized matrix, model
Annotation:This paper presents a voice identification method based on machine learning. The general algorithm of voice identification is considered. The results of the analysis of common solutions in the area of voice identification are presented. The use of cepstral transformations and deep learning methods for convolutional neural networks is proposed. A software prototype has been developed and the results of its testing have been presented. The results of evaluating the effectiveness of the developed method are presented.
Keywords:biometric identification, classification, machine learning, neural network, algorithm, MFCC, CNN
Annotation:The problem of distortion and substitution of information when performing transactions in retail trade using self-service checkouts leads to a decrease in the profits of enterprises. The introduction of weight recognition tools using machine-learning methods will increase the level of protection for retail transactions. The paper analyzes various training methods and builds a network model that allows, with a small amount of labeled data, to obtain good recognition results in the field of retail.
Keywords:convolutional neural networks, machine learning, retail information security